Historical evolution of Yancheng Wetland Rare Birds National Nature Reserve in Jiangsu Province
Location of Jiangsu Yancheng Wetland Rare Birds National Nature Reserve
Jiangsu Yancheng Wetland National Nature Reserve (rare birds), also known as Yancheng Biosphere Reserve (hereinafter referred to as Yancheng reserve), is located 40 km east of Yancheng City, spanning Xiangshui, Binhai, Sheyang, Dafeng and Dongtai counties (cities)
In February 1983, the people's Government of Jiangsu Province approved the establishment of the provincial coastal beach Rare Birds Nature Reserve in Yancheng, Jiangsu Province.
In October 1984, the Reserve Management Office of scientific research institutions was established.
In October 1992, it was promoted to the National Nature Reserve with the approval of the State Council and renamed as "Jiangsu Yancheng National Rare Bird Nature Reserve".
In November 1992, it was approved as a biosphere reserve by the Coordinating Council of the UNESCO Committee on man and the biosphere, and was included in the World Biosphere Reserve Network.
In April 1996, he became a member of "Northeast Asian crane protection network".
In November 1999, he became a member of "East Asia Australia wading bird migration network".
In January 2002, it was listed in the list of Ramsar international important wetlands.
In July 2019, it was listed as a world natural heritage site, and part of the Yellow Sea (Bohai) sea migratory bird habitat (phase I).
In February 2007, with the approval of the State Council, the scope of the reserve was adjusted and renamed as Jiangsu Yancheng Wetland Rare Birds National Nature Reserve.
The tidal flat in Yancheng Nature Reserve is mainly a broad silt coastal plain formed by a large amount of silt poured into the sea by the Yellow River during the capture of Huaihe River by the Yangtze River, and part of the bottom sediment deposited by the tidal current and other marine dynamic forces. The tidal flat is narrow in the north and wide in the south, with a width of 15km. The main water sources in the reserve are land water and marine water. The pH value of land water is higher than 7.0, and the salinity is high. The marine water is mainly affected by tides and storms, and often overflows the beach and beach of the whole area. The reserve is the main catchment area of Lixia River. More than 10 rivers, including Guanhe River, Zhongshan River, Biandan port, Sheyang River, Huangsha port, Xinyang port, Doulong port, Wanggang, Zhugang, Chuandong port, Liangduo River and Xingang, cross into the sea, accounting for 90% of the total amount of water entering the sea in the whole province. Yancheng Nature Reserve in Jiangsu Province can control flood, protect embankment and retain sediment. In history, both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River entered the sea at the north and south ends of the reserve. The Yangtze River and the Yellow River carried a large amount of sediment to form the abandoned Yellow River Delta. Most of the shoals in the reserve are of long silting type, and about 900 square meters of land are deposited in the whole area every year.
The reserve is located in the transition zone between warm temperate zone and north subtropical zone, mainly affected by marine and continental climate. The annual average temperature is 13.7-14.6 ℃, the annual extreme minimum temperature is - 10 ℃ (January), and the annual extreme maximum temperature is 39.0 ℃ (August). It has abundant sunshine, frost free period of 210-224 days, abundant rainfall and annual average precipitation of about 1000mm.
The reserve mainly protects the Red Crowned Crane and other rare wild animals and the wetland ecosystem on which it depends for survival.
As of 2012, the reserve has 450 species of plants, 402 species of birds, 26 species of amphibians and reptiles, 284 species of fish and 31 species of mammals. Among them, there are 14 species of first-class wild animals under state key protection, including Red Crowned Crane, white crowned crane, Oriental White Stork, black stork, Chinese merganser, Relict Gull, great bustard, white shoulder eagle, Golden Eagle, white tailed sea eagle, elk, Chinese sturgeon and white sturgeon. There are 85 species of second-class national key protected wild animals, such as Swertia, black faced Spoonbill, swan, little green footed snipe, mandarin duck, grey crane, etc.
China Red Crowned Crane Museum
Located in Yancheng, Jiangsu Province, China Red Crowned Crane museum is a special subject museum built on the world's rare bird red crowned crane. The museum has many functions, such as scientific research, popular science publicity, eco-tourism, cultural education, species protection, etc.
Red Crowned Crane breeding center
Crane paradise, also known as Yancheng rare bird domestication farm, belongs to Jiangsu Yancheng Wetland rare bird National Nature Reserve. It was founded in 1986, and martyr Xu Xiujuan was the first director of the crane farm. The crane farm integrates scientific research, animal breeding, eco-tourism and environmental education, including scientific research building, Wanghe Pavilion, Red Crowned Crane rescue center, waterfowl lake, Red Crowned Crane domestication center, wetland publicity and education center, tourist service center, etc. Because Fei Xiaotong wrote "crane paradise", it is also called crane paradise.
Wanghe pavilion was established in 1989. It has three floors, 18 meters high and hexagonal cornice. As the beach is flat, it is the commanding point.
The bus route in Yancheng: take the special tourist bus, which starts at 8:00 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. from Monday to Friday, and sets off at 7:30, 8:30 and 1:30 p.m. from Saturday to Sunday. The starting station of the tour bus is Yancheng urban planning exhibition hall, and stops at Yanfu people's shopping mall (Zhongyin Haihua Plaza), Bank of China (old Gymnasium) and Bank of communications Travel (China Customs), the New Fourth Army memorial hall, Yancheng Institute of technology east campus bus platform, direct to Yancheng rare birds nature reserve crane park
Booking system is implemented for bird watching activities lasting for three months every winter. In order to reduce the damage to the wetland ecosystem, the bird watching routes opened in the scenic spot are limited to 15 people per day, and must make an appointment three days in advance. The date when the number of bird watching activities has expired or encounters bad weather should be postponed according to the order of appointment. The ID card number, home address and mobile phone number should be provided when applying for payment.
The reserve has undertaken 45 national and provincial scientific research projects. In particular, the research on artificial breeding of Red Crowned Crane has made important progress, which has attracted experts and scholars from more than 30 countries and regions.
Yancheng Nature Reserve has become an important species repository. Yancheng coastal area is an ecologically fragile area, but through years of efforts to protect, Yancheng reserve has become a coastal biological enrichment area, effectively protecting more than 2600 biological resources, accounting for 1 / 10 of the total number of coastal biological species in China.