Brief introduction of Laohugou glacier No.12
Basic information of Laohugou glacier No.12
Laohugou glacier No.12, also known as transparent mengke glacier, is located in the northern part of the Qilian Mountains in Subei Mongolian Autonomous County, Gansu Province. Transparent mengke comes from Mongolian transliteration, which means tall and broad snow mountain.
According to the Chinese Glacier catalogue, Laohugou glacier No.12 is the largest valley glacier in Qilian Mountains, with a length of 10.1 km, an area of 21.9 km2, and an ice storage capacity of 2.63 cubic kilometers. The glacier is located and monitored by the Qilian Mountain Glacier and ecological environment observation and research station, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Laohugou glacier No.12 belongs to Daxue mountain, which is a complete small mountain in Qilian Mountains. The Qilian Mountain is very long, with more than 2000 kilometers, and the big snow mountain is very short, only 88 kilometers. However, it breeds the largest valley glacier in Qilian Mountains, Glacier No. 12 in tiger valley.
There are 44 glaciers in Laohugou area, covering an area of 54.3 square kilometers. Laohugou glacier No.12 is the largest land type valley glacier that can be developed in Northwest China. However, the developed Qiyi glacier (2.78 square kilometers) near jiaxiaguan in Gansu Province and Baishui Glacier No.1 (1.52 square kilometers) in Yulong Snow Mountain of Yunnan Province are only one tenth of the area of Laohugou glacier No.12. Such a wide range of snow fields, transparent, clean and smooth ice surface, is also beyond the above glaciers.
Laohugou glacier No.12 is about 200 kilometers away from Dunhuang. It is the closest valley type glacier in Asia to railway lines, airports and highways. From Dunhuang to Dunhuang, most of the roads are paved with asphalt, except for the earth road which is more than 30 kilometers away from the glacier. Even buses can easily drive to the base camp at the end of the glacier.
Daxue mountain is the highest mountain at the northern end of Qilian Mountain. Because it is located in the key point of Northwest Airflow and abundant precipitation, it has bred as many as 203 glaciers. There are 44 glaciers in the Laohugou area where Laohugou No.12 glacier belongs. As the largest valley glacier in Qilian Mountains, Laohugou No.12 glacier is 10 km long with an altitude of 4200 m at the end of the glacier. Most tourists can climb the glacier without obvious mountain reaction.
In 1958, the glacier was first discovered by the Chinese modern glacier investigation team as Laohugou glacier No.20; by the 1970s, the glacier was renamed Laohugou glacier No.12. "Transparent mengke" is a transliteration of Mongolian, meaning tall and broad. This is the name given to it by Chinese glaciologist Wang Zongtai when he returned to tiger Valley in 2001.
From 1958 to 1962, the Chinese Academy of Sciences once located at the end of the glacier
From 1975 to 1979, an investigation was carried out in this area with the aim of "glacier change and its impact on water resources"; from 1984 to 1985, a short-term investigation was carried out aiming at "glacier, climate and runoff change".
In May 2005, with the support of relevant scientific research projects, researchers from the Institute of environment and Engineering in cold and arid regions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences started to observe the material balance, modern snow and ice process, glacier movement and meteorology of Laohugou glacier 12. In December 2007, the Institute of environment and Engineering in cold and arid regions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences decided to restore a comprehensive and systematic glacier positioning observation and Research on Laohugou Glacier No. 12, which was newly named "Qilian Mountain Glacier and ecological environment observation and research station".
According to the distribution map of glacier types in China, the glacier in Daxueshan area of the Western Qilian Mountains is a typical large continental glacier, which is an ideal comprehensive observation site for glaciers and ecological environment. The Qilian Mountain Glacier and ecological environment comprehensive observation and research station, established in 2007, is mainly for the long-term comprehensive positioning observation of atmosphere, glacier, frozen soil, vegetation, hydrology, etc., which makes it a comprehensive observation and research station for multi-layer coupling research such as atmosphere, glacier, frozen soil and vegetation, environmental change monitoring, comprehensive utilization of water resources in inland river basins in arid areas, and water resources development and utilization 。 The research focuses on the modern process of cryosphere, atmospheric environmental process, ice air interface and ground air interface process, studies the change and adaptation of various types of vegetation at different altitudes and the relationship between them and environmental factors, and carries out dynamic monitoring and comparative study of modern environmental changes in typical sections of different natural zones by using high-resolution remote sensing images, and reveals the influence of natural and human activities Based on the observation of hydrological processes of frozen soil and snow cover in typical basins, a distributed hydrological model including glacier changes, snow melting and frozen thawing processes is constructed to explore the water cycle mechanism of cold regions. The future climate and environmental changes in Qilian Mountains are predicted and the impacts of future changes in cryosphere on water resources are evaluated.
In the past 50 years, Laohugou glacier No.12 has retreated by more than 300 meters. The observation data since 1958 show that glacier No.12 has been retreating all the time. The fastest period of glacier melting is July and August every year. The observation of more than 50 years shows that glacier No.12 retreats more than 6 meters per year on average.
Laohugou glacier No.12, with an altitude of 5483 meters, is also a paradise for mountaineers. In the mid-1980s, a Japanese mountaineering team first revealed the climbing history of the mountain.
The best season for climbing is from the middle of September to the middle of October, while for ordinary tourists, July to August is the best travel season. At this time, not only the ice surface temperature is high, but also the landscape is rich in changes.
1. The glaciers rarely touched by people are covered with mysterious colors, and the large-scale Laohugou Glacier No. 12 is particularly rich. In addition, its diversified tourism function has become one of the highlights of tourism development in Western China in the 21st century, and therefore has a broad market prospect. All areas without glaciers are potential sources of tourists, especially in foreign markets.
2. Laohugou glacier No.12 is located more than 100 kilometers south of Lanzhou Xinjiang Railway, national highway 312 and Dunhuang airport. It is the axis of Subei County, Dunhuang, Guazhou, Yumen and Jiayuguan fan-shaped urban agglomeration. It can serve the means of transport aircraft, trains, cars, excellent geographical location.
4. The average slope of tiger Valley Bed and ice surface is 2.6 ° to 6.6 ° and the road is gentle without any slope break and scarp. At present, there is a simple road leading to 100m in front of the glacier, which has excellent accessibility. The lithology in the gully is composed of Cambrian and Precambrian siliceous limestone, schist and quartzite. There is no earthquake, no thawing settlement and no debris flow. It creates excellent conditions for the construction of grade highway.
5. The annual runoff in the ditch is 47.7 million m3, with good water quality and sufficient water quantity. Transmission lines can start in shibaocheng and Changma, more than 40 kilometers, and 10kv High-voltage lines are easily connected. The program-controlled telephone of Shibao city and Changma train is also very easy to get through.
6. Subei County is "advanced county of national unity and progress", "well-off county" and "three no counties" (no poison, no gambling and no yellow). The people are simple, warm and stable. There are herdsmen's pastures in summer near Laohugou glacier No.12. The unique folk custom of Mongolian nationality provides a good social environment for the development of No.12 glacier in Laohugou.
7. Subei County attaches great importance to the tourism development of Laohugou glacier No.12 as a breakthrough in the development of tourism, and will provide various preferential policies and strong support for domestic and foreign financing groups and individuals.
In 2005, China National Geographic magazine rated six most beautiful glaciers in China, and No. 12 glacier in Laohugou was listed. The remaining five most beautiful glaciers in China were Rongbu glacier, Tomur glacier, Hailuogou Glacier, midui glacier and tlamakanli glacier.
Shi Yafeng, known as "the father of Chinese glaciers", commented on the glacier as "beautiful, easy to access and climb" in the selection activity held by China National Geographic
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