Evolution of the system of mosiotunia falls
Formation of mosiotunia falls
Moxiotunya falls, formerly known as "Victoria Falls", is located in the middle reaches of the Zambezi River in Africa and the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. It is 1700 meters (5500 feet) wide and 108 meters (355 feet) high. It is one of the world's famous waterfalls. European explorer David Livingstone discovered it on his journey in 1855 and named it after the queen of England. Victoria Falls was included in the world heritage list in 1989.
It's twice as wide as Niagara Falls. The average flow rate is about 935 cubic meters per second (33000 cubic feet per second). Before reaching the falls, the vast Zambezi River flows gently over a broad, shallow basalt bed, and then suddenly falls from a cliff about 50 meters (150 feet) into a deep canyon. The main waterfall is divided into several strands by a rocky island between the rivers, splashing up to 300 meters (1000 feet) and visible from a distance of 65 kilometers (40 miles). Every new moon rises, the water mist reflects the brilliant moon rainbow, the scenery is very charming. The sound of the waterfall is like thunder. The local kalolo Lozi people call it "MoSi OA tunya", which means "the fog of thunderbolt". According to textual research, as far back as 90 ad, a small number of agricultural population settled on both sides of the Zambezi River. Most of the aborigines live on fishing and hunting within a radius of 128 kilometers (80 miles) from the waterfall.
View of Victoria Falls
There is a moving legend about the great waterfall: it is said that under the deep pool of the waterfall, a group of beautiful girls like flowers are beating the golden drum of Africa Day and night. The sound of the golden drum becomes the thundering sound of the waterfall
Looking hundreds of meters along the direction of the current, a 151 meter wide iron bridge flies across the river, which is the Victoria Falls Bridge. It records such a period of history: Livingstone's great "discovery" broke the peaceful life of local residents. In 1890, the British ruled Zimbabwe in the south of the great waterfall, and four or five years later, Zambia on the North Bank of the great waterfall was controlled. The colonists began with "discovery" and then occupied, and the original form was revealed here.
On November 16, 1855, David Livingstone, a Scottish missionary and British explorer, arrived at the site of the waterfall for the first white man to see it, one of the most spectacular waterfalls in the world.
From 1903 to 1905, the colonists built the road and railway bridge to break through the natural moat formed by the Zambezi River, in an attempt to pave the way for the British colonial rule from Cairo to Cape Town. The great waterfall has a solemn and stirring beauty, which can shock people.
Sixty or seventy years after the completion of the bridge, earth shaking changes have taken place on both sides of the waterfall: the devil's waterfall washed away the misfortune imposed on the African people by the colonists, the horseshoe waterfall inspired the fighting morale of the African people, the roar of the main waterfall shattered the dream of colonialism, and the people on both sides of the waterfall successively won national independence and national liberation.
In 1905, an arched railway highway bridge with a span of 200 meters (657 feet) was built on the canyon near the waterfall. On the side of Zambia, there are two hydropower stations with a total power generation capacity of 100000 kW.
Victoria Falls National Park and Livingston hunting park form a waterfall area. The waterfall area has become a famous tourist attraction in Africa.
Waterfall discovery process
Then they head west to the coast of Luanda in Angola. Considering that the route was too difficult to get inland, he turned to the East and sailed along the 2700 km long Zambezi River, hoping that this artery like river would become the "God's highway" to open up central Africa. In May 1856 they arrived in Quelimane, off the coast of Mozambique.
It was in November 1855 that Livingstone "discovered" the mosiotunia falls, becoming the first European to reach it (he first heard about the falls four years ago, when he and William cotton oswell arrived 129 kilometers west of the Zambezi River). At that time, he took a canoe down the river and arrived at the waterfall on November 16. He saw the water vapor aroused by the waterfall from a distance. He boarded a small island on the edge of the waterfall and saw the whole river suddenly disappear in front of him. Livingston wrote: "it seems that the river has disappeared from the earth. It's only 80 feet away, and it's disappearing in the opposite crevice I don't know why, so I gingerly climbed to the edge of the cliff, saw a huge Canyon, cut off the 1000 yard wide river, and made the river drop 100 feet, suddenly compressed to only 15 to 20 yards wide. The whole waterfall, from the right bank to the left bank, is actually just a crack in the hard basalt, and then extends from the left bank through 30-40 miles of hills. " Later, Livingston pointed out that the width and height of the falls were underestimated. He described the waterfalls as "the most spectacular sight I've ever seen in Africa." He also wrote: "the Nothing could be seen but a white cloud. That white practice is like thousands of small meteors, all flying in one direction, leaving behind a spray after each meteor. " The next day Livingston returned to the island where he had his first waterfall viewing (now known as kazeruka or LIVINGSTON ISLAND) and planted peaches, apricots and some coffee beans. He also engraved the date and abbreviation of his name on a tree, which is said to be the baobab tree. He later admitted that it was the only boring thing he had ever done in Africa.
Curiously, the explorers were not elated by the discovery, though he later described it as "such a beautiful scene will surely be noticed by the flying angels.". For Livingston, the waterfall is essentially a pile of 1676 meters long, 107 meters down the water wall, but also the Christian missionaries trying to reach the inland indigenous villages of the actual obstacles. For him, the focus of the trip was to discover the Batoka plateau to the east of the falls. If the Zambezi river turns out to be navigable (it can't be navigable), in his view, the place could be a potential settlement. Although he expressed his disappointment at the discovery of the waterfall in a way that he felt "progressing", Livingston admitted that the waterfall was so spectacular that it was named after Queen Victoria of England.
In August 1860, he led his expedition to the falls for the second time to measure the depth of the canyon. He dropped a rope with several bullets and a piece of white cloth. "We sent one man to lie on a protruding cliff to look at the little white cloth, and the others let out 310 feet of rope before the bullets landed on an inclined, protruding rock, which may be 50 feet from the water below. Of course, the bottom is deeper. From above, the white cloth is only the size of a coin. " So he estimated that the canyon was 108 meters (354 feet) deep, about twice the size of Niagara Falls.
Administrative division and geographical environment
Moxiotunya falls is located at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe and belongs to the Republic of Zambia. At the junction of the upper and middle reaches of the Zambezi River, 17 ° 55 ′ 28 ″ s, 25 ° 51 ′ 30 ″ e, is the largest waterfall in Africa and one of the largest, most beautiful and spectacular waterfalls in the world. More than two kilometers wide, the waterfall rushes into the basalt gorge, and the rainbow formed by water mist can be seen 20 kilometers away.
In 1989, according to the natural heritage selection criteria (VII) (Ⅷ), moxiotunya falls (Victoria Falls) was listed as a world natural heritage in the world heritage list (No. 509) by UNESCO.
Heritage rated reports: report of the 13th session of the World Heritage Committee.
According to the World Heritage Committee, this is one of the most spectacular waterfalls in the world. The devil waterfall is located on the Zambezi River, with a width of more than 2 km. The waterfall runs into the basalt channel, and the rainbow formed by water mist can be seen 200 km away.
After arriving in Harare, Zimbabwe's capital, it is recommended to take a domestic plane to Victoria Falls.
When the Zambezi River is full, 7500 cubic meters of water per second surge
The formation of Victoria Falls is due to a deep rock fracture valley that cuts across the Zambezi River. The fault valley was caused by crustal movement 150 million years ago. The widest part of Victoria Falls is 1690 meters.
On the other side of the cliff where the river falls, there is a cliff. The canyon between the two is only 75 meters. The water forms a huge vortex called "boiling vortex" here, and then flows along the 72 kilometer long canyon.
In fact, they are divided into five sections: the Victoria Falls and the East Falls
In 1855, missionary and explorer David Livingstone became the first European to reach Victoria Falls. He approached the falls in a canoe.
The Zambezi River, the fourth largest river in Africa, tumbled here and suddenly turned over on a cliff about 1800 meters wide. The vast silver waves fell into a gorge about 110 meters deep, rolling up thousands of piles of snow and heavy fog. The snow waves were rolling, the turbulence was raging, the thunder was roaring, and the earth shaking water mist was splashing like white clouds and light smoke in the air. The loud noise and fog could be as far as 15 kilometers.
Victoria Falls near Livingston, Zambia
Victoria Falls near Livingston, Zambia
On the east side of the south wall of the first gorge poured by the great waterfall, there is a north-south Canyon, which cuts the south wall into two sections. The width of the canyon is only more than 60 meters. The whole Zambezi River torrent rolls out of this canyon.
The water vapor of the waterfall is more than 300 meters high, which makes this area full of water mist. In rainy season, if the foam condenses into bursts of rapid rain, people can stand here and get wet in a few minutes.
Today, the local tribes are donga, Lozi, Leya, Toka and Subia.
Dongjia people hold a rain sacrifice by the waterfall every year, throwing black bulls into the bottom of the gorge to worship the river god.
Mosiotunia / Victoria Falls is called "MoSi OA tunra" by Zambia and "manguandongya" by Zimbabweans, both of which mean "thundering rain and fog" (or "roaring smoke").
The corurus, who once lived near mosiotunia / Victoria Falls, were so afraid of the falls that they never approached it. Neighboring Tonga people regard it as a God, and the rainbow as the incarnation of God: they hold a ceremony in the East waterfall, slaughtering black cattle to sacrifice God.
Rainbow Falls on the border of Zimbabwe and Zambia
It is because the waterfall is so dangerous that it attracts brave people from all over the world. They heard that only during the dry season from September to October each year, the water in the pool is relatively small and relatively calm, and no waterfall will be left along the cliff. And the flood from March to May every year
Even so, there are plenty of brave challengers. They are playing in the pool, holding cameras on the edge of the pool to take photos, lying on the edge of the edge to make a flying action. More brave father holding his son who has just grown full of baby teeth to look at the cliff. "It looks dangerous, but it's safe." This is what most swimmers experience.
"You stand on the edge of the waterfall and watch it fall down like thunder. No matter how you shout, you can't hear your own voice. Your adrenaline is surging in your body. You seem to feel the feeling of approaching death." David Ron recalled how he felt in the devil's pool. He said that although the water is cool, when you really swim, your body will tremble with excitement, which is quite fatal for swimming in such a dangerous area. Only at this time, the swimmer will understand why the tourism strategy will warn people not to eat before swimming here.
When the Zambezi river just passed through the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe, the grasslands on both sides of the river fluctuated and scattered with scattered trees. The river was mighty and moving forward without any sign of great change. This section is the middle reaches of the river, with a width of 1.6 km and a slow flow. All of a sudden, the river came down from the edge of the cliff, forming a long line of exercise. It roared with unimaginable momentum and flew into the narrow and steep valley, and its width was reduced to only 60 meters. The scenery is spectacular! The flow of the Zambezi River varies with seasons, with 550 million liters of water per minute falling from the edge of a 1.6 kilometer wide cliff to form the widest waterfall in the world. The pouring River produces a rising air flow full of droplets. Tourists standing on the cliff opposite the waterfall will have their handkerchief swept into the air by the powerful rising fog.
The moxiotunya / Victoria Falls zone is a 97 km long zigzag canyon with a drop of 106 M. The whole waterfall is divided into five sections by four rock islands such as Livingstone island. Due to the difference of flow and fall, it is named "devil waterfall", "main waterfall", "horseshoe waterfall", "rainbow waterfall" and "East waterfall".
The name "devil's pool" is because it is located at the top of the 110 meter high Victoria Falls. The local name of Victoria Falls is "moxio tunia", which means "roaring smoke". It was first discovered by Scottish missionaries and some explorers in 1855. The water of the waterfall comes from the Zambezi River. When the river is full, the water flowing through it is as high as 7500 cubic meters per second. The turbulent river water rushes to the cliff and forms the Victoria waterfall with splashing water. Even if you are 40 kilometers away, you can see the water mist like clouds. "Devil's pool" is a natural rock pool. It is said that the corurus, who once lived near the falls, never dare to approach it. Neighboring Dongjia people regard it as a deity, and regard rainbow as the incarnation of God. They often hold a ceremony to sacrifice black cattle near the sun to the east of the waterfall.
The five waterfalls flowing straight down into a pool only 400 meters wide, just like a huge curtain hanging into the abyss. The columnar cloud formed by the waterfall group is hundreds of meters high. The flying fog and sound waves can be transported to 10 kilometers away, and the sound is like thunder and fog. Dozens of miles away, you can see the continuous rise of water mist, so it is known as the "boiling pot", the strange scenery can be called the world's unique. After passing through the waterfall, the Zambezi River still has a magnificent momentum. The river rushes into the narrow valley and rushes through the whirlpool of "boiling pot" and rushes 64 kilometers along the zigzag Canyon to the downstream.
Located in the west is the "devil waterfall", the most majestic devil waterfall, with the potential of mountains and seas straight down the abyss. The roar was deafening. The strong deterrent force makes people dare not to approach; the "main waterfall" is in the middle. The main waterfall is 122 meters high, about 1800 meters wide, and the drop is about 93 meters. The flow is the largest, with a gap in the middle; on the east side is the "horseshoe waterfall", which is named for its horseshoe shape covered by rocks; the "rainbow waterfall" like a giant curtain is located in the east of the "horseshoe waterfall". The water points in the air refract the sunlight and produce a beautiful rainbow. The rainbow waterfall is named after the colorful rainbow that can be seen from it. Rainbows formed by water mist can be seen 20 kilometers away. Rainbows often flash in the splashing water and can rise to a height of 305 meters. On a bright moon night, the water vapor will form a strange moon rainbow. The "East waterfall" is the easternmost section. In the dry season, the waterfall is often a steep cliff, and in the rainy season, it becomes a waterfall full of thousands of simple training.
Mosiotunia / Victoria Falls is famous for its shape, scale and sound, and can be called a wonder on earth. The "rainforest" near the waterfall adds a bit of beauty to the magnificent scene of mosiotunia / Victoria Falls. "Rainforest" is an evergreen forest on a cliff facing a waterfall (although the surrounding grassland loses its green during the dry season). The humid microclimate formed by waterfall water vapor grows very luxuriant. As a major scenic spot here, "rainforest" seems to be exposed to rain and fog all day long, even on sunny days.
During the dry season from August to December, the full width of Victoria Falls can be seen, but the water level may be very low. By the time of the flood season (March to May), the scene became earth shaking. The raging waves of the Zambezi River, with thousands of horses galloping down, have a discharge of 15 times that of the dry season.
From Lusaka, you can drive or fly to the waterfall. Take a yacht tour of the upper reaches of the Great Falls, the Zambezi River. The outline of the waterfall can be seen from the upstream. The Zambezi River is the fourth longest river in Africa, flowing from west to East, Zimbabwe on the south bank and Zambia on the north bank. The river is wide, but the flow is gentle. There is a small island in the river, and you can see groups of elephants roaming on the island with a telescope. suddenly
After watching the waterfall, you can visit the handicraft village beside the waterfall and experience another taste. Here you can see the traditional African life, as well as the culture and art of six different tribes in Zimbabwe. Craftsmen in the villages use different kinds of wood to carve beautiful animals, and women also weave exquisite boxes of various sizes.
Today, the cause of the formation of the moxiotunya falls is much clearer than that of Livingston: the central plateau of Zambia is a 300 meter thick basalt lava, which erupted in volcanic activity 200 million years ago, and there was no Zambezi River at that time. As the lava cools and solidifies, there are lattice cracks, which are filled with soft material and form a roughly flat sheet of rock.
About half a million years ago, the Zambezi river flowed through the plateau. The water flowed into the cracks and washed away the soft material in the cracks to form deep ditches. The river continued to pour in and roar until an overflow was found at the lower edge and poured into a canyon. This is how the first waterfall was formed.
This process does not end here, and the water flowing down the waterfall gradually washes away the most vulnerable parts of the rock edge. The river does not erode the fault, and the river bed is deeply cut upstream, forming a new canyon at an angle to the original canyon. Step by step, the river cuts back, meets another East-West crack, and washes the soft material out again. The whole river scours back along the lattice cracks, and in the waterfall
Today, seven waterfalls have disappeared in the lower reaches. The eighth Canyon is today's mosiotunia / Victoria Falls, but it's also eroding. The rate of erosion is about 1.6 km per 10000 years. The ninth waterfall may appear at the devil's falls at the west end.
Mosiotunia / Victoria Falls has been retreating. In the past half a million years, there have been many waterfalls on its meandering channel. Today, the eighth waterfall is seen. Each one appears on the lava fault with cracks in the river bed. After the river water washes away the soft filler in the fault, it falls into the cracks formed, and immediately erodes the more vulnerable cracks, and gradually deepens into a canyon backward until it meets another fault.