Wetlands

River bird

Introduction to river birds

River birds are wetland birds that live in the Changhe River Basin. There are more than 200 species of river birds, such as black eared Kite, wild duck, brown backed Shrike, mountain turtledove, owl, green headed duck, and small greyhound. Wetland River bird is the most representative group of wetland wildlife, and an important part of wetland ecosystem. It reflects the changes of wetland environment sensitively and profoundly. There are 271 species of river birds belonging to 12 orders, 32 families and 56 species belonging to 18 families and 10 orders.
wild duckwild duck
wild duck
The Yangtze River is located in the middle of the east line of migratory birds. At the end of autumn, many river birds stop at the wetlands of the Yangtze River section and live on the river banks and sandbanks.
There are 195 species of river birds belonging to 10 orders, 25 families and 10 orders, which are beneficial or have important economic and scientific research value. According to the residence type, they can be divided into four categories: Summer migrant, winter migrant, resident bird and traveler, most of which are migratory and migratory. Among the 57 species of endangered birds in Asia, there are 31 species in wetlands in China, accounting for 54%; there are 15 species of cranes in the world, 9 species recorded in China, accounting for 60%; 166 species of wild geese and ducks in the world, and 50 species of wetlands in China, accounting for 30%.
black eared Kiteblack eared Kite
black eared Kite
Serial number
order
Number of families
Number of species
National key protected River birds
National "three haves" river birds
Number of families
Grade I
Grade II
Number of families
Number of species
One
Diversiformes
One
Four
One
Two
Two
Lepidoptera
One
Five
One
Two
One
Three
Three
Babblers
Three
Twelve
One
One
Three
Seven
Four
Pelecaniformes
Five
Fifteen
Four
One
Six
Three
Six
Five
Geraniums
Three
Thirty-two
Three
Three
Ten
Two
Eighteen
Six
Anserina
One
Forty-seven
One
One
Six
One
Thirty-nine
Seven
Falconiformes
One
One
One
One
Eight
Hemiformes
Two
Twenty-eight
Two
Five
Eight
One
Fourteen
Nine
Charadriiformes
Nine
Seventy-six
Three
Four
Nine
Seventy
Ten
Lariformes
Four
Forty-two
One
One
Four
Three
Thirty-four
Eleven
strigiformes
One
Thirty-three
One
Three
Twelve
Buddhist monks
One
Six
One
Two
total
12 mesh
One
Two hundred and seventy-one
Eighteen
Twelve
Forty-four
Twenty-five
One hundred and ninety-five
Note: "three haves" refer to species that are beneficial, have important economic value and have important scientific research value.
The distribution of river birds in wetlands in China is adapted to the climate, hydrology, vegetation and other natural geographical characteristics. The north is located in the cold temperate zone and temperate zone, and the summer migrant and migratory birds are the dominant species; the south is located in the subtropical and tropical zone, and the winter migrant and resident birds are the dominant species. Many river birds breed in the north and overwinter in the south, showing the following regional characteristics:
1.1 wetlands in Northeast China
It mainly includes marshes, lakes and wet meadows in Sanjiang Plain and Songnen Plain, as well as wetlands in Daxing'anling and Changbai Mountains. There are abundant reeds, aquatic plants and rich organic matter, which provide ideal food and concealment conditions for wetland River birds. Therefore, there are rich species of river birds, which are very suitable for the habitat and breeding of Red Crowned Crane, white headed crane, white crane, Oriental White Stork, black stork, Chinese Merganser, as well as sandpipers, gulls, geese and ducks, which is the breeding center of waterfowl in Northeast Asia and the necessity of waterfowl migration in northern Asia It's a place to go.
1.2 wetlands in Northwest China
Most of the wetlands in this area belong to inland and plateau wetlands, including alpine meadow swamp and reed swamp with an altitude of 2500-5000m, and lakes such as Bosten Lake and Selim lake. In this area, many waterfowls live and breed in this area from April to May every year, such as black necked Crane, swan, bar headed goose, Red duck, black stork, brown Headed Gull, Red Headed Gull, red footed snipe, etc. Bayinbuluke National Nature Reserve in Xinjiang is located in this area, which is an important breeding ground of Cygnus in China. Tarim River Basin is an important breeding ground of black stork in China. The lakes in the Maowusu Desert of Inner Mongolia contain nearly 40% of the natural population of relict gulls. Wuliangsuhai in Hetao area is another potential international important wetland in this area. Due to its poor stability, it only becomes an important post station for waterfowl in migration season.
1.3 Yunnan Guizhou Plateau Wetland
The wetland in this area has its own characteristics, including plateau lakes and wet meadows, which attract many inland migratory birds to winter here in winter. Napahai in Diqing Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan, Qujing and Zhaotong areas in Northeast Yunnan and Caohai in western Guizhou are all important wintering places for black necked Crane, a rare bird endemic to China. In recent years, Dianchi Lake near Kunming has become the main wintering place for the gulls.
1.4 wetlands in central, South and East China
It is mainly composed of large freshwater lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Famous waterfowl reserves include Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, Shengjin Lake, Longgan Lake and other fresh water lakes. These lakes have suitable climate, sufficient water, long frost free period and large growth of aquatic animals and plants. Every autumn and winter, the lake water level is low, forming a large area of shallow marshes, which is an ideal place for river birds to forage and inhabit. There are many lakes in the central China Jianghan Plain. Honghu Lake, Chenhu Lake, Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake are the wintering places for rare birds such as white crane, white naped crane, white headed crane, Oriental White Stork, black stork, Chinese merganser, etc. There are a series of lakes in East China, ranging from Weishan Lake in the south of Shandong Province to Qiandao Lake in the north of Zhejiang Province. The more important waterfowl habitats are Hongze Lake and Gaoyou Lake in Jiangsu Province, Chaohu Lake and Shengjin Lake in Anhui Province, which are important wintering places for waterfowl.
1.5 Qinghai Tibet Plateau Wetland
It includes wetlands in Tibet, Qinghai and Western Sichuan. The area has low temperature, dry and little rain, but sufficient sunshine. There are many lakes, marshes and wet meadows in the area, which makes it an ideal habitat for waterfowl. A large number of river birds live on the Qinghai Lake, which is an international important wetland on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. In addition, Zhaling lake, Eling Lake and Namco Lake are also of great importance. The northeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau is the breeding ground of black necked Crane. It extends from Ruoergai in Northwest Sichuan to longbaotan in Yushu, Qinghai, and to Qinghai Lake in the north. There are a lot of river birds on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, but the species are monotonous, mainly including cormorants, bar headed geese, fishing gulls and brown headed gulls.
1.6 coastal wetlands
China has a long and tortuous coastline, with a total length of more than 10000 kilometers from Liaodong Bay to Beibu Gulf, where a large number of coastal wetlands are distributed. In recent years, it has been found that the Shuangtaizi Estuary of Liaodong Bay is an important breeding ground for black Headed Gull, and Rongcheng seashore of Shandong Peninsula has gradually become the main wintering place of swan in northern coastal area. The coastal beach in Yancheng area of Jiangsu Province has been silted up and expanded year by year. In winter, the climate is mild, the light is sufficient, the aquatic grass is abundant, and the fish, shrimp and shellfish products are rich. It has become an ideal place for waterfowl to overwinter. Almost all the wintering populations of Red Crowned Crane in China are concentrated, and the breeding ground of black headed gull is also. The Yellow River Delta in Shandong Province, which is similar to its natural conditions, has become the transitional zone between the wintering and breeding areas of river birds and an important post station on the migration route due to the latitude. The coastal beach of Tainan, Taiwan Province, is the main wintering site of black faced Spoonbill. Futian Neilingding National Nature Reserve in Shenzhen, Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong and Dongzhaigang National Nature Reserve in Hainan are all coastal mangrove swamp wetlands. Their climate conditions, wide intertidal beach, rich crustaceans and aquatic plants attract groups of gulls, Snipes, herons and ducks to breed and overwinter there.
According to the research of Chinese scholars for many years, it is preliminarily considered that there are three migration areas of wetland River birds in China
2.1 migration area of Western migratory birds: the migration route is an important part of the East Asia India migration route, including the summer migratory birds breeding in Arid Grassland in western Inner Mongolia, arid or desert, semi desert grassland and plateau meadow grassland in Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and other places, such as bar headed goose and fish gull. When they migrate, they can overwinter along the Animaqing, Bayankala, Qionglai mountains and other mountains to the west of Sichuan Basin, Yunnan Guizhou Plateau and even Indo China. Besides the eastern part of Tibet, most of the large and medium-sized migratory birds may also fly over the Himalayas to India, Nepal and other areas for wintering.
2.2.2 migration area of migratory birds: including the eastern and central grasslands of Inner Mongolia, the western part of North China and Shaanxi. In winter, they can cross the Qinling Mountains and Daba Mountains along Taihang Mountains and Luliang mountains to Sichuan Basin, and pass through the eastern part of Daba mountain to pass through central China or further south areas for wintering.
2.3 Eastern migratory bird migration area: the migration route is not only an important part of the East Asia Australia migration route, but also the most important route for China's waterfowl migration, including river birds breeding in Northeast China and eastern North China, such as mandarin ducks, Chinese merganser, and sandpipers. They may migrate southward along the coast to central or South China, or even to Southeast Asian countries, or to Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines and Australia for winter.
In addition to the possible migration routes mentioned above, some winter migratory birds, such as black geese and Mongolian sandflies, which migrated from Mongolia and Asia of the former Soviet Union to China in winter, should also be included. In addition, there are short-distance migration of some species of migratory birds in Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Yunnan Guizhou Plateau due to seasonal influence, and some species migrate from west to East.