Morphological characteristics of Taxus cuspidata
Taxus wallichiana Zucc., also known as Taxus wallichiana Zucc., is a Taxus of Taxaceae family. Trees or shrubs, annual branches green. The leaves are strip-shaped and thick in texture. The male cones are round, with many spirally arranged stamens and short stalks; the female cones are almost sessile. Seeds mature in the same year, nutlike, columnar oblong, born in fleshy, red, cup-shaped pseudotesta. It is a unique tree species in Tibet, and it is a national class I key protected wild plant (approved by the State Council on August 4, 1999). Distributed in Afghanistan, Nepal and Tibet, China.
With spreading or upward extending branches; bark reddish brown, split into thin flakes falling off; branchlets irregularly alternate, pale green, and later pale brown or reddish brown; winter buds ovoid, bud scales imbricate, basal bud scales usually triangular ovate, apex acute, back slightly ridged, detached or a few persistent at the base of branchlets. Leaves spirally inserted, irregularly biseriate, linear.
It is usually straight, k1.5-3.5cm, 2.5mm wide, with a sharp protuberant at the apex, light green on the upper surface, raised midrib, and a yellowish stomatal band with 2 times the width of the green edge below; it has a short stalk. The male cones are round, with many spirally arranged stamens and short stalks; the female cones are almost sessile, with one ovule with disc-shaped nucellus at the upper end and several imbricate bracts around the base. Seeds mature in the same year, nutlike, columnar oblong, born in fleshy, red, cup-shaped pseudotesta, about 6.5 mm long, 4.5-5 mm in diameter, slightly flat, with blunt ridges on both sides of the lower part, apex with short pointed, and ellipsoid hilum.
T. wall ichiana iucc is mainly distributed in Northwest Yunnan, southern Tibet and southwest China. It is also distributed from Afghanistan to the eastern Himalayas.
Propagate with seeds. The dormancy period of seed embryo is longer, so it must be stored by wet sand layer at low temperature after seed collection. The germination period can be extended to the next year after sowing in spring. It can be propagated by cutting.
Seedling overwintering Management: the seedlings are afraid of frost, so they should be protected by arch shed in winter, and it is better to cover the plastic film with straw curtain.
Seedling transplanting and seedling refining: after one year's cultivation, the seedlings should be transplanted and tempered. The seedlings should be transplanted to the open field seedlings and hemp according to the row spacing of 25-30 cm. A 1.5-meter-high shading shed with six shadings and four suns should be built, and the seedlings should be watered regularly. When the seedlings turn yellow, light urea water or light fecal water should be applied to cultivate strong seedlings.
Afforestation out of nursery
When the seedling height of Taxus chinensis is 40-60 cm, it can be planted out of the nursery. It was cultivated well at the end of winter and early spring, and the row spacing was 1.6 m × 2 m.
Its precious and unique medicinal value has attracted the attention of experts at home and abroad. Paclitaxel contained in it has good curative effect on cancer, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease and so on, and has a good prospect of application and development.
The growth of Taxus cuspidata in Tibet is slow, and the natural growth of wild resources can not meet the needs. It is more and more important to seek ways to obtain Taxus resources artificially. It is necessary to establish protected areas in the natural growth areas of Taxus cuspidata and prohibit deforestation.
On the basis of trial planting, Jilong county will increase the planting scale of Taxus himalayana.